One of the most common causes of the Emotional Responses of Dementia (ERD) can be a Urinary Tract Infection or U.T.I. Symptoms can be unsettling and the emotional responses may lead to the pathway of BPSD if the causes are not fully investigated.

According to the NHS website

UTIs can affect different parts of your urinary tract, including your bladder (cystitis), urethra (urethritis) or kidneys (kidney infection). Most UTIs can be easily treated with antibiotics.

Check if it’s a UTI

Symptoms of a UTI include:

  • needing to pee suddenly or more often than usual
  • pain or a burning sensation when peeing
  • smelly or cloudy pee
  • blood in your pee
  • pain in your lower tummy
  • feeling tired and unwell
  • in older people, changes in behaviour such as severe confusion or agitation

Note the last quoted symptom.

Yet how many people with a UTI get treated with Antipsychotics instead of Antibiotics

In the US, the Mayo Clinic states:

UTIs may be overlooked or mistaken for other conditions in older adults.


The US website “Healthline” states:

“A UTI can cause confusion and other symptoms of dementia in older adults. Taking preventive steps and looking out for UTI symptoms should help prevent infection. If your doctor diagnoses a UTI early, your outlook is good.”

in its article Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) in Older Adults

and the UK Alzheimer’s Society has an informative leaflet

It is all to easy for a Doctor to reach for a prescription pad and prescribe Antipsychotics when a simple Urine Dip Test will show a probable UTI


Treating the causes of the Emotional Responses of Dementia (ERD) upholds our rights under the UN CRPD.

Treating the causes of the Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD) abuses our rights under the UN CRPD.